Trent Biggs

Trent Biggs
Professor, Department of Geography, San Diego State University

Dr. Biggs is a hydrologist interested in human interactions with watershed processes, including water balances, sediment budgets, channel morphology, water quality, and feedback on land use in urban and agricultural landscapes. Current study sites include the US-Mexico Border region, San Diego, American Samoa, and the Amazon basin.

Dr. Bigg aims to integrate three techniques in our research: - Remote sensing of land cover change, evapotranspiration, and terrain - Modelling, including statistical and dynamic computational models of runoff, sediment, channel form, and water quality - Fieldwork for characterization of channel geometry, streamflow, and water quality including use of stable isotopes of water for tracing sources and pathways of water in the landscape. More recently, Dr. Bigg's students have used interviews with farmers in Mexico to understand the role of water as a driver of land cover change.

NOAA Key Partners and Collaborators:

  • Chris Kinkade, Applied Sciences Group 
  • Amy Uhrin, Office of Response and Restoration, Marine Debris Division 
  • Michelle Stokes, Colorado Basin River Forecast Center

NOAA Mission Aligned Research Interests:

  • Human-based Impacts on Climate Change and Marine Ecosystems (Marine Debris, Coral Reefs, and Ecosystems) 
  • Flood and Drought impacts on Food Security

Honors, Awards, and Grants:

  • Regional deforestation and stream biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin. 2000-2003 $64,000, NASA Graduate Student Research Fellowship. University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Project in the Amazon (LBA). 1998-2003. University of California, Santa Barbara. PI: Dar Roberts and Oliver Chadwick. Funding agency: NASA Collaborators: Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, University of Sao Paulo.
  • Water Allocation in the Krishna River Basin to Improve Water Productivity in Agriculture. 2004-2008, $234,800 International Water Management Institute PI: C.A. Scott and H. Malano Funding Agency: Australian Council for International Agricultural Research. Collaborators: University of Melborne, and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University.
  • Particle size and accumulation rates of sediment within fluvial and feeder canyon depositional environments of the Tijuana Estuary Reserve, Fellowship award to Shannon Webber, June 2008-May 2009, $20,000 PI: Biggs Funding agency: National Estuarine Research Reserve, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Urban landscapes and sediment production potential from Tijuana, January 2008-May 2009. $5100 PI: Biggs, Funding agency: University Grants Program, San Diego State University.
  • Sediment and erosion in urban Tijuana: Socioeconomic interactions with sediment budgets under rapid urbanization of marginal lands, June 2008-August 2009, $79,999. PI: Biggs Funding agency: Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy.
  • High altitude wetlands of the Himalaya, May 2009-January 2010, $37,000 PI: Biggs, Funding agency: Worldwide Fund for Nature.
  • Watershed modeling of sediment and nutrient load to a coral reef, American Samoa Oct 2011-Oct 2013, $47,000 PI: Biggs, Funding agency: NOAA Territorial Grant. 
  • Sediment and nutrient loading to reefs in American Samoa, Oct 2013-Sept 2015, $63,712 PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: Department of Commerce, American Samoa. 
  • Sedimentation on coral reefs in American Samoa, Nov 2013-Apr 2015. $55,119. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.
  • Stormflow and water quality in San Diego County $9939 January 2013 - June 2014. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: University Grants Program. 
  • Monitoring sediment loading to the Tijuana Estuary. $16,000 December 2013. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Hydrologic modeling to support Hydromodification in San Diego County. $16,000 Sept 2013-June 2014. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: County of San Diego.
  • Sediment and hydrologic modeling of Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana. $134,000 Jan 1, 2014-Sept 1, 2017. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Mapping oil-affected vegetation in the Gulf Coast. $54,449 Sept 2013 – Aug 2015. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: NASA Earth System Science Graduate Student Fellowship to Michael Beland.
  • Hydro-social and environmental impacts of sugarcane production. $36,613 Aug 2014-July 2016. PI: T. Hess, Cranfield University; Funding Agency: NSF and Belmont Forum.
  • Final model development for hydromodification in San Diego County. $16,000 February 2015-June 2015. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: County of San Diego.
  • Assessing water quality and sources of nutrient loads in American Samoa watersheds. $33,866. June 2015 to May 2016. PI: Biggs, Funding Agency: American Samoa Department of Interior.
  • Effectiveness of mitigation of sediment loads to coral reefs. $46,332 August 2015-December 2016 PI: Biggs. Funding Agency: National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. 
  • Sustaining Healthy Tributaries of the San Diego River. $65,000 June 1, 2017 – December 2018 PI: Biggs. Funding Agency: San Diego River Park Foundation.
  • Restoration of the lower San Diego River with aeration. $12,000. August 2017-May 2019 PI: Biggs. Agency: San Diego River Park Foundation.
  • Deforestation impacts on water quality and quantity in the Brazilian Amazon. $2500 May 2017-May 2018 Funding agency: Brazil Fund, College of Arts and Letters, SDSU.
  • Stable isotopes of water to determine the sources of low flow. $27,000 June 2018-March 2019. Funding agency: San Diego County.
  • The sociohydrological system of a tropical forest frontier: land-climate-water feedbacks and farmer adaptation. $369,057 Sept 2018-Aug 2023. PI: K. Mullan (U Montana). CoPI at SDSU: Fernando de Sales. Funding agency: National Science Foundation.
  • Real-time monitoring of water quality in the San Diego River. $251,000 Jan 2019-May 2022. PI Biggs. Funding agency: J.W. Sefton Foundation.
  • Stable isotopes to identify sources of low flow: Additional Sites, 24h sampling. $28,000 June 2019-March 2020. PI Biggs. Funding agency: San Diego County.
  • Sediment mitigation at Faga'alu, American Samoa. $83,000. May 2020-Dec 2021. PI Biggs: Funding agency: National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.
  • Real-time monitoring of water quality of the Tijuana River. $116,875. Oct 2021-June 2024. PI Biggs. Funding agency: US EPA


  1. Richey, J.E., Krusche, A., Deegan, L., Ballester, V., Biggs, T. and Victoria, R., 2001, Land use changes and the biogeochemistry of river corridors in the Amazon. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Global Change News Letter, 45, pp. 19-22.
  2. Biggs, T.W., T. Dunne, T.F.Domingues, and L.A.Martinelli. 2002. The relative influence of natural watershed properties and human disturbance on stream solute concentrations in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon basin.Water Resources Research 38:doi 10.1029/2001WR000271.
  3. Holmes, K., D.A. Roberts, S. Sweeney, I. Numata, E. Matricardi, O.A. Chadwick, T.W. Biggs, G. Batista. 2004. Soil databases and the problem of establishing regional biogeochemical trends. Global Change Biology, 10, 796-814.
  4. Biggs, T. W., T. Dunne, and L. A. Martinelli. 2004. Natural controls and human impacts on stream nutrient concentrations in a deforested region of the Brazilian Amazon basin. Biogeochemistry 68:227-257.
  5. Van Rooijen D., Turral H., Biggs T.W. 2005. Sponge City: Water balance of mega-city water use and wastewater use in Hyderabad, India. International Council on Irrigation and Drainage Wastewater Irrigation Special Issue.
  6. Ahmad, M., T. W. Biggs, H. Turral, and C. Scott. 2006. Application of SEBAL Approach to Map the Agricultural Water Use Patterns in the Data Scarce Krishna River Basin of India. Water Science and Technology 53: 83-90.
  7. Biggs, T. W., T. Dunne, and T. Muraoka. 2006. Transport of water, solutes, and nutrients from a pasture hillslope, southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Hydrological Processes 20: 2527-2547.
  8. Biggs, T. W., P. S. Thenkabail, M.K. Gumma, C. Scott, G. R. Parthasaradhi, and H. Turral. 2006. Irrigated area mapping in heterogeneous landscapes using MODIS time-series, ground surveys, and agricultural census data in Krishna River Basin, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing 10: 4245-4266.
  9. Biggs, T.W., Scott, C.A., Rajagopalan, B. and Turral, H., 2007, Trends in solar radiation due to clouds and aerosols, Krishna River Basin, Southern India, 1952-1997. International Journal of Climatology, 27: 1505-1518.
  10. Thenkabail, P., Parthasaradhi, G., Biggs, T.W., Gumma, M.K., Turral, H. 2007. Spectral Matching Techniques to Determine Historical Land use/Land cover (LULC) and Irrigated Areas using Time-series AVHRR Pathfinder Datasets in the Krishna River Basin, India. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 73: 1029-1040.
  11. Biggs, T.W., A. Gaur, C.A. Scott, P. Thenkabail, R. Gangadhara Rao, M. Krishna Gumma, S.K. Acharya, and H. Turral. 2007. Closing of the Krishna Basin: Irrigation development, streamflow depletion, and macroscale hydrology. Research Report 111. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  12. Bouwer, L.M., Biggs, T.W., Aerts, J.C.J.H. 2008. Estimates of spatial variation in evaporation using satellite-derived surface temperatures and a water balance model. Hydrological Processes 22: 670-682.
  13. Gaur, A., Biggs, T.W., Gumma, M.K., Parthasaradhi, G. and Turral, H., 2008. Water scarcity effects on equitable water distribution and land use in a major irrigation project--case study in India. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(1): 26-35.
  14. Biggs, T.W., Dunne, T., Roberts, D.L., Matricardi, E., 2008. The rate and extent of deforestation in watersheds of the southwestern Amazon Basin. Ecological Applications. 18: 31-48.
  15. Biggs, T.W., P.K. Mishra, and H. Turral. 2008. Evapotranspiration and regional probabilities of soil moisture stress in rainfed crops, southern India. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148:1585-1597.
  16. Venot, J.-P., T. Biggs, F. Molle, and H. Turral. 2008. Reconfiguration and closure of river basins in south India: trajectory of the lower Krishna basin. Water International 33 (4):436 - 450.
  17. Van Rooijen, D., H. Turral, and T.W. Biggs. 2008. Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India. Irrigation and Drainage online:10.1002/ird.439.
  18. Biggs, T. W., C. A. Scott, A. Gaur, J.-P. Venot, T. Chase, and E. Lee. 2008. Impacts of irrigation and anthropogenic aerosols on the water balance, heat fluxes, and surface temperature in a river basin. Water Resources Research 44: 10.1029/2008WR006847.
  19. Lee, E., Chase, T.N., Rajagopalan, B., Barry, R.G., Biggs, T.W. and Lawrence, P.J., 2009. Effects of irrigation and vegetation activity on early Indian summer monsoon variability. International Journal of Climatology: 29 (4):573-581, doi 10.1002/joc.1721.
  20. Van Rooijen, D. J., H. Turral, and T. W. Biggs. 2009. Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India. Irrigation and Drainage 58 (4):406-428.
  21. Biggs, T. W., and *B. Jiang. 2009. Soil Salinity and Exchangeable Cations in a Wastewater Irrigated Area, India. Journal of Environmental Quality 38 (3):887-896.
  22. Biggs, T.W., Gangadhara Rao, P. and Bharati, L., 2010. Mapping agricultural responses to water supply shocks in large irrigation systems, southern India. Agricultural Water Management, 97(6): 924-932, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.01.027. §
  23. Biggs, T.W., *Atkinson, E., Powell, R. and Ojeda, L., 2010. Land cover following rapid urbanization on the US-Mexico border: Implications for conceptual models of urban watershed processes. Landscape and Urban Planning, doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.02.005. §
  24. Venot J-P, Jella K, Bharati L, George B, Biggs T, Rao PG, Gumma MK, & Acharya S. 2010. Farmers' Adaptation and Regional Land-Use Changes in Irrigation Systems under Fluctuating Water Supply, South India. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 136, 595-609. §§
  25. Van Rooijen, D., Biggs, T., Smout, I. and Drechsel, P. 2010. Urban growth, wastewater production and use in irrigated agriculture: a comparative study of Accra, Addis Ababa and Hyderabad. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 24: 53–64, doi 10.1007/s10795-10009-19089-10793.
  26. Chatterjee, A., E. Blom, B. Gujja, R. Jacimovic, L. Beevers, J. O'Keeffe, M. Beland, and T. Biggs. 2010. WWF Initiatives to Study the Impact of Climate Change on Himalayan High-altitude Wetlands (HAWs). Mountain Research and Development 30 (1):42-52.
  27. Bouma, J.A., Biggs, T.W. and Bouwer, L.M., 2011. The downstream externalities of harvesting rainwater in semi-arid watersheds: An Indian case study. Agricultural Water Management, 98(7): 1162-1170.
  28. Neill C, Chaves J, Biggs T, Deegan L, Elsenbeer H, Figueiredo R, Germer S, Johnson M, Lehmann J, Markewitz D & Piccolo M. 2011. Runoff sources and land cover change in the Amazon: an end-member mixing analysis from small watersheds. Biogeochemistry 105: 7-18
  29. Biggs, T.W. and *D'Anna, H., 2012. Rapid increase in copper concentrations in a new marina, San Diego Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(3): 627-635.
  30. Biggs, T.W. and *Whitaker, T., 2012. Critical elevation zones of snowmelt during peak discharges in mountain river basins. Journal of Hydrology. 438-439: 52-65
  31. *Wang N, Biggs T.W., Skupin A. 2013. Visualizing gridded time series data with self-organizing maps: An application to multi-year snow dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere. Comp. Env. Urban Sys. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2012.10.005.
  32. Biggs, T.W., *Anderson, W.G., Pombo, O.A., 2014. Concrete and Poverty, Vegetation and Wealth? A Counterexample from Remote Sensing of Socioeconomic Indicators on the U.S.–Mexico Border. Professional Geographer 1–14. doi:10.1080/00330124.2014.905161.
  33. *Lee, R. M., and T. W. Biggs. 2014. Impacts of land use, climate variability, and management on thermal structure, anoxia, and transparency in hypereutrophic urban water supply reservoirs, Hydrobiologia, 1–22, doi:10.1007/s10750-014-2112-1.
  34. Biggs, T. W., C.-T. Lai, P. Chandan, R. M. Lee*, A. Messina*, R. S. Lesher*, and N. Khatoon. 2015. Evaporative fractions and elevation effects on stable isotopes of high elevation lakes and streams in arid western Himalaya, J. Hydrol., 522(0), 239–249, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.023.
  35. *Taniguchi, K. T., & Biggs, T. W. 2015. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California. Geomorphology, 248, 228–236. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.07.038
  36. Marshall, M., Thenkabail, P., Biggs, T., and Post, K. 2016. Hyperspectral narrowband and multispectral broadband indices for remote sensing of crop evapotranspiration and its components (transpiration and soil evaporation). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 218–219, 122–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.12.025
  37. *Messina, A. T., and Biggs, T. W. 2016. Contributions of human activities to suspended sediment yield during storm events from a small, steep, tropical watershed. Journal of Hydrology, 538, 726-742, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.03.053.
  38. *Beland, M., Roberts, D. A., Peterson, S. H., Biggs, T. W., Kokaly, R. F., Piazza, S., Roth, K., Khanna, S., Ustin, S. L. 2016. Mapping changing distributions of dominant species in oil-contaminated salt marshes of Louisiana using imaging spectroscopy. Remote Sensing of Environment, 182, 192–207. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.024.
  39. Hess, T. M., Sumberg, J., Biggs, T. W., Georgescu, M., Haro-Monteagudo, D., Jewitt, G., Ozdogan, M., Marshall, M., Thenkabail, P., Daccache, A., Knox, J. W. 2016. A sweet deal? Sugarcane, water and agricultural transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Global Environmental Change, 39, 181–194. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.003. 
  40. Biggs, T. W., Marshall, M., & *Messina, A. 2016. Mapping daily and seasonal evapotranspiration from irrigated crops using global climate grids and satellite imagery: Automation and methods comparison. Water Resources Research, 52(9), 7311–7326. doi.org/10.1002/2016WR019107.
  41. Cui, J., Tian, L., Biggs, T. W., & Wen, R. 2017. Deuterium-excess determination of evaporation to inflow ratios of an alpine lake: Implications for water balance and modelling. Hydrological Processes, doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11085.
  42. *Beland, M., Biggs, T. W., Roberts, D. A., Peterson, S. H., Kokaly, R. F., & Piazza, S. 2017. Oiling accelerates loss of salt marshes, southeastern Louisiana. PloS One, 12(8), e0181197
  43. *Taniguchi, K. T., Biggs, T. W., Langendoen, E. J., Castillo, C., Gudino-Elizondo, N., Yuan, Y., & Liden, D. 2018. Stream channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of the US-Mexico border: documenting the importance of channel hardpoints with Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. http://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4331
  44. Gao, X., Chen, X., Biggs, T.W., & Yao, H. 2018. Separating Wet and Dry Years to Improve Calibration of SWAT in Barrett Watershed, Southern California. Water . http://doi.org/10.3390/w10030274.
  45. Storlazzi, C. D., Cheriton, O. M., *Messina, A. M., & Biggs, T. W. 2018. Meteorologic, oceanographic, and geomorphic controls on circulation and residence time in a coral reef-lined embayment: Faga’alu Bay, American Samoa. Coral Reefs. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-018-1671-4.
  46. *Gudino-Elizondo, N., Biggs, T. W., Castillo, C., Bingner, R. L., Langendoen, E. J., Taniguchi, K. T., … Liden, D. 2018. Measuring ephemeral gully erosion rates and topographical thresholds in an urban watershed using unmanned aerial systems and structure from motion photogrammetric techniques. Land Degradation & Development, 0(0). http://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2976
  47. *Gudino-Elizondo, N., Biggs, T., Bingner, R., Yuan, Y., Langendoen, E., Taniguchi, K., … Liden, D. 2018. Modelling Ephemeral Gully Erosion from Unpaved Urban Roads: Equifinality and Implications for Scenario Analysis. Geosciences, 8(4), 137. http://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040137
  48. *Lee, R., Biggs, T., & Fang, X. 2018. Thermal and Hydrodynamic Changes under a Warmer Climate in a Variably Stratified Hypereutrophic Reservoir. Water. http://doi.org/10.3390/w10091284
  49. Rahmati, O., Golkarian, A., Biggs, T., Keesstra, S., Mohammadi, F., & Daliakopoulos, I. N. 2019. Land subsidence hazard modeling: Machine learning to identify predictors and the role of human activities. Journal of Environmental Management, 236, 466–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.02.020
  50. Rahmati, O., Falah, F., Naghibi, S. A., Biggs, T., Soltani, M., Deo, R. C., … Tien Bui, D. 2019. Land subsidence modelling using tree-based machine learning algorithms. Science of The Total Environment, 672, 239–252. http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.49
  51. Biggs, T. W., Santiago, T. M. O., Sills, E., & Caviglia-Harris, J. 2019. The Brazilian Forest Code and riparian preservation areas: spatiotemporal analysis and implications for hydrological ecosystem services. Regional Environmental Change. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-019-01549-w
  52. *Gudino-Elizondo, N., Biggs, T. W., Bingner, R. L., Langendoen, E. J., Kretzschmar, T., Taguas, E. V, … Yuan, Y. 2019. Modelling Runoff and Sediment Loads in a Developing Coastal Watershed of the US-Mexico Border. Water, 11(5), 1024. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051024
  53. Rahmati, O., Falah, F., Dayal, K., Deo, R. C., Mohammadi, F., Biggs, T., Moghaddam, D.D., Naghibi, S.A., Bui, D. T. 2020. Machine learning approaches for spatial modeling of agricultural droughts in south-east region of Queensland Australia. Science of The Total Environment, 134230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134230
  54. Ma, J., Duan, H., He, L., Tiffany, M., Cao, Z., Qi, T., Shen, M., Biggs ,T.W., Xu, X. 2020. Spatiotemporal pattern of gypsum blooms in the Salton Sea, California, during 2000-2018. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 89, 102090. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2020.102090
  55. Arabameri A, Saha S, Roy J, Tiefenbacher JP, Cerda A, Biggs T, Pradhan B, Thi Ngo PT, Collins AL. 2020. A novel ensemble computational intelligence approach for the spatial prediction of land subsidence susceptibility. Sci Total Environ 726:138595. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138595
  56. Gómez‐Gutiérrez Á, Biggs T, *Gudino‐Elizondo N, Errea P, Alonso‐González E, Nadal Romero E, Sanjosé Blasco JJ (2020) Using visibility analysis to improve point density and processing time of SfM‐MVS techniques for 3D reconstruction of landforms. Earth Surf Process Landforms 45:2524–2539. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4910
  57. German LA, Hepinstall-Cymerman J, Biggs T, Parker L, *Salinas M. 2020. The environmental effects of sugarcane expansion: A case study of changes in land and water use in southern Africa. Appl Geogr 121:102240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102240
  58. *Mu Y, Biggs T, Stow D, Numata I. 2020. Mapping heterogeneous forest-pasture mosaics in the Brazilian Amazon using a spectral vegetation variability index, band transformations and random forest classification. Int J Remote Sens 41:8682–8692. doi: 10.1080/2150704X.2020.1802529
  59. De Sales F, Santiago T, Biggs TW, Mullan K, Sills EO, *Monteverde C. 2020. Impacts of Protected Area Deforestation on Dry‐Season Regional Climate in the Brazilian Amazon. J Geophys Res Atmos 125 (16): doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033048
  60. *Mu Y, Biggs TW, De Sales F .2021. Forests mitigate drought in an agricultural region of the Brazilian Amazon: Atmospheric moisture tracking to identify critical source areas. Geophys Res Lett. doi: 10.1029/2020GL091380. Featured in EOS magazine here.
  61. *Wu Y, Mullan K, Biggs T, Caviglia-Harris J, Harris DW, Sills EO .2021. Do forests provide watershed services for farmers in the humid tropics? Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon. Ecol Econ 183:106965. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2021.106965
  62. *Wallace S, Biggs T, Lai C-T, McMillan H .2021. Tracing sources of stormflow and groundwater recharge in an urban, semi-arid watershed using stable isotopes. J Hydrol Reg Stud 34:100806. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100806
  63. *Mu Y, Biggs T, Shen SSP (2021) Satellite-based precipitation estimates using a dense rain gauge network over the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon: Implication for identifying trends in dry season rainfall. Atmos Res 105741. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105741
  64. Wu Y, Mullan K, Biggs T, Caviglia-Harris J, Harris DW, Sills EO (2021) Do forests provide watershed services for farmers in the humid tropics? Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon. Ecol Econ 183:106965. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2021.106965
  65. Caviglia-Harris J, Biggs T, Ferreira E, Harris DW, Mullan K, Sills EO (2021) The color of water: The contributions of green and blue water to agricultural productivity in the Western Brazilian Amazon. World Dev 146:105607. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105607
  66. Caballero CB, Ruhoff A, Biggs T (2022) Land use and land cover changes and their impacts on surface-atmosphere interactions in Brazil: A systematic review. Sci Total Environ 808:152134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152134

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